The Hechinger Report is a national nonprofit newsroom that reports on one topic: education. Sign up for our weekly newsletters to get stories like this delivered directly to your inbox. Consider supporting our stories and becoming a member today.

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. — Everywhere, it seems, back-to-school has been shadowed by worries of a teacher shortage.

Website for
Website for The Associated Press
This story also appeared in and The Associated Press

The U.S. education secretary has called for investment to keep teachers from quitting. A teachers union leader has described it as a five-alarm emergency. News coverage has warned of a crisis in teaching.

In reality, there is little evidence to suggest teacher turnover has increased nationwide or educators are leaving in droves.

Certainly, many schools have struggled to find enough educators. But the challenges are related more to hiring, especially for non-teaching staff positions. Schools flush with federal pandemic relief money are creating new positions and struggling to fill them at a time of low unemployment and stiff competition for workers of all kinds.

Tackling Teacher Shortages

This story is part of an ongoing series revealing critical areas of school staffing with an eye toward the gaps that most affect kids and families. The series is part of an eight-newsroom collaboration between, The Associated Press, The Christian Science Monitor, The Dallas Morning News, The Fresno Bee in California, The Hechinger Report, The Seattle Times and The Post and Courier in Charleston, South Carolina, with support from the Solutions Journalism Network.

Since well before the COVID-19 pandemic, schools have had difficulty recruiting enough teachers in some regions, particularly in parts of the South. Fields like special education and bilingual education also have been critically short on teachers nationwide.

Timothy Allison, a collaborative special education teacher in Birmingham, Ala., talks to a student at Sun Valley Elementary School, on Sept. 8, 2022. The school district is struggling to hire special education teachers, in particular, despite giving $10,000 signing bonuses. Credit: AP Photo/Jay Reeves

For some districts, shortages have meant children have fewer or less qualified instructors.

In rural Alabama’s Black Belt, there were no certified math teachers last year in Bullock County’s public middle school.

“It really impacts the children because they’re not learning what they need to learn,” said Christopher Blair, the county’s former superintendent. “When you have these uncertified, emergency or inexperienced teachers, students are in classrooms where they’re not going to get the level of rigor and classroom experiences.”

Related: PROOF POINTS: Researchers say cries of teacher shortages are overblown

While the nation lacks vacancy data in several states, national pain points are obvious.

For starters, the pandemic kicked off the largest drop in education employment ever. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of people employed in public schools dropped from almost 8.1 million in March 2020 to 7.3 million in May.

Employment has grown back to 7.7 million since then, but that still leaves schools short around 360,000 positions. 

“We’re still trying to dig out of that hole,” said Chad Aldeman, policy director at the Edunomics Lab at Georgetown University.

It’s unknown how many of those positions lost were teaching jobs, or other staff members like bus drivers — support positions that schools are having an especially hard time filling. A RAND survey of school leaders this year found that around three-fourths of school leaders say they are trying to hire more substitutes, 58% are trying to hire more bus drivers and 43% are trying to hire more tutors. 

Still, the problems are not as tied to teachers quitting as many have suggested.

Teacher surveys have indicated many considered leaving their jobs. They’re under pressure to keep kids safe from guns, catch them up academically and deal with pandemic challenges with mental health and behavior.

National Education Association union leader Becky Pringle tweeted in April: “The educator shortage is a five-alarm crisis.” But a Brown University study found turnover largely unchanged among states that had data.

Quit rates in education rose slightly this year, but that’s true for the nation as a whole, and teachers remain far more likely to stay in their job than a typical worker.

Hiring has been so difficult largely because of an increase in the number of open positions. Many schools indicated plans to use federal relief money to create new jobs, in some cases looking to hire even more people than they had pre-pandemic. Some neighboring schools are competing for fewer applicants, as enrollment in teacher prep programs colleges has declined.

Related: Can apprenticeships help alleviate teacher shortages?

The Upper Darby School District in Pennsylvania has around 70 positions it is trying to fill, especially bus drivers, lunch aides and substitute teachers. But it cannot find enough applicants. The district has warned families it may have to cancel school or switch to remote learning on days when it lacks subs.

“It’s become a financial competition from district to district to do that, and that’s unfortunate for children in communities who deserve the same opportunities everywhere in the state,” Superintendent Daniel McGarry said.

The number of unfilled vacancies has led some states and school systems to ease credential requirements, in order to expand the pool of applicants. U.S. Education Secretary Miguel Cardona told reporters last week that creative approaches are needed to bring in more teachers, such as retired educators, but schools must not lower standards.

Rochester City School District prospective applicants apply during an educator recruiting event at the Mercantile on Main, in Rochester, N.Y., Aug. 17, 2022. Credit: AP Photo/Carolyn Thompson

Schools in the South are more likely to struggle with teacher vacancies. A federal survey found an average of 3.4 teaching vacancies per school as of this summer; that number was lowest in the West, with 2.7 vacancies on average, and highest in the South, with 4.2 vacancies.

In Birmingham, the school district is struggling to fill around 50 teaching spots, including 15 in special education, despite $10,000 signing bonuses for special ed teachers. Jenikka Oglesby, a human resources officer for the district, says the problem owes in part to low salaries in the South that don’t always offset a lower cost of living.

The school system in Moss Point, a small town near the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, has increased wages to entice more applicants. But other districts nearby have done the same. Some teachers realized they could make $30,000 more by working 30 minutes away in Mobile, Alabama.

“I personally lost some really good teachers to Mobile County Schools,” said Tenesha Batiste, human resources director for the Moss Point district. And she also lost some not-so-great teachers, she added — people who broke their contracts and quit three days before the school year started.

“It’s the job that makes all others possible, yet they get paid once a month, and they can go to Chick-fil-A in some places and make more money,” Batiste said. 

A bright spot for Moss Point this year is four student teachers from the University of Southern Mississippi. They will spend the school year working with children as part of a residency program for aspiring educators. The state has invested almost $10 million of federal relief money into residency programs, with the hope the residents will stay and become teachers in their assigned districts.     

Michelle Dallas, a teacher resident in a Moss Point first-grade classroom, recently switched from a career in mental health and is confident she is meant to be a teacher. 

“That’s why I’m here,” she said, “to fulfill my calling.”

This story on teacher shortages was produced by the Associated Press and as part of collaboration on the educator workforce between those two outlets, The Hechinger Report, The Christian Science Monitor and the Education Labs of The Dallas Morning News, The Fresno Bee in California, The Seattle Times and The Post and Courier in Charleston, South Carolina.

Associated Press writers Brooke Schultz in Harrisburg, Pa., Collin Binkley in Washington, D.C., and Carolyn Thompson in Buffalo, N.Y. contributed to this report. Lurye reported from New Orleans. Schultz is a corps member for the Associated Press/Report for America Statehouse News Initiative. Report for America is a nonprofit national service program that places journalists in local newsrooms to report on undercovered issues. Rebecca Griesbach, a member of The Alabama Education Lab team at who is supported through a partnership with Report for America, contributed from Alabama.

The Associated Press education team receives support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The AP is solely responsible for all content.

The Hechinger Report provides in-depth, fact-based, unbiased reporting on education that is free to all readers. But that doesn't mean it's free to produce. Our work keeps educators and the public informed about pressing issues at schools and on campuses throughout the country. We tell the whole story, even when the details are inconvenient. Help us keep doing that.

Join us today.

Letters to the Editor

3 Letters

At The Hechinger Report, we publish thoughtful letters from readers that contribute to the ongoing discussion about the education topics we cover. Please read our guidelines for more information. We will not consider letters that do not contain a full name and valid email address. You may submit news tips or ideas here without a full name, but not letters.

By submitting your name, you grant us permission to publish it with your letter. We will never publish your email address. You must fill out all fields to submit a letter.

  1. In our district they aren’t really trying to fill vacancies because they have the RSSP (Edgenuity software) for recovery but for whatever reason, they are only cramming one room full of seniors who have credit deficits for 5 hours/5 days a week with one green teacher who is brand spanking new, bless his heart. I’m mad because I can’t get anyone who cares about my twin grandsons or the other kids in there who have services they aren’t going to get while in there and the program is actually an alternative school within the high school complete with delivered lunches and a toilet with no exit from 9:30 till 2:30 PM so what’s wrong with this picture? My grandsons are being punished because of a pandemic and their visual disabilities that also interfered with remote learning, etc. and do NOT fit the “bad boy” criteria one must to be in the class! What did they do with all those federal dollars and why didn’t they offer all kids recovery both online and with help from tutoring programs? Why have they withheld access and acceleration also since a lot of these kids are 2e. My grandsons are!

  2. Is the real question not turnover but a lack of candidates entering the field? What are the data on students entering college in education and graduating with education majors who are qualified to teach and enter the profession?

  3. Really, the crisis is that even missing a handful of teachers in a school has major impacts on school culture and creating a safe learning environment for students. Maybe it is not as “overblown” as it has been written about. However, the very MAJOR impacts of missing a few teachers/support staff/ on an entire school should also not be diminished for the sake of making people feel less anxiety about the state of our schools. Schools were in the lurch before the pandemic… the “new” positions being created are probably ones many schools desperately needed before and even more so now as children, families, and school staff face new and evolving challenges…

Submit a letter

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *